25 Most Influential People in History By Attribute

Some of the most popular debates and trivial conversations people have, include the topic of global influence and popularity. Don’t tell us you’ve never wondered or never participated in a debate about who are the most influential people in history. This is a topic that usually leads to further discussion and debate on who is the strongest, the smartest, the most beautiful, and a series of unresolved questions that nobody can answer with absolute certainty. Pantheon, a project developed by the Macro Connections group at the MIT University Media Lab that collected and analyzed data on historical and cultural popularity, tried to give answers to these questions, or at least attempted to. A multiethnic team of decorated designers, engineers, and scientists working collaboratively to quantify, analyze and measure global culture delivered the most academic and enduring list of the most popular and influential human beings in history. Since the top 100 is heavily dominated by philosophers, military personnel, politicians, scientists, and religious figures, we here at List25 decided to deliver a roster of the 25 most famous people in history by profession and attribute.

25. Bruce Lee, Martial Artist – Overall Rank #229

Kung Fu superstar Bruce Lee was more than just a martial artist, more than just an actor and entertainer. He was a pioneer who trained in both striking and grappling, in standing and ground fighting, in an era when most martial artists only focused on one area. He was the first to use modern, progressive training methods, didn’t rely on tradition, and emphasized physical fitness, which was not always common in the martial arts community. He became an international icon and managed to enter the houses of millions around the world and popularized Asian martial arts in the West more than any other martial artist in history. He became the idol of countless kids around the globe during the sixties and seventies, and his legend continues to gain many fans from today’s younger generations, over forty years after his death. Recently, the most powerful man of Mixed Martial Arts and the UFC’s president, Dana White, stated that Bruce Lee has influenced the fastest-growing sport in the world more than anyone else and called him the “father of MMA.”

24. George Washington, US President – Overall Rank #190

George Washington, considered by historians to be one of the most significant and prominent American figures in history, was the first president of the United States and one of its founding fathers. He was also the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and contributed the most to the country’s freedom, perhaps except for Thomas Jefferson, who penned the Declaration of Independence. He was also one of the men who helped replace the outdated Articles of Confederation with the Constitution, which remains the supreme law of the nation. According to MIT, he’s the most influential and famous American president even though his general rank here is quite disappointing.

23. Walt Disney, Business – Overall Rank #168

We have no doubt that if this list’s standard and measure of greatness was children’s love from around the world then Walt Disney would have the top spot. The man who gave birth to some of the most adored cartoon characters in all animation, including Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck, is the most influential and effective businessperson of all time and we can’t argue much with their logic on this one. Walt Disney holds the record for winning the most Academy Awards with twenty-two, but the most important thing he achieved is a business empire based on the visions of his creative imagination. And since his time his characters have been entertaining millions of people, young and old, all around the world, regardless of their socioeconomic background, religious beliefs, skin color, or nationality.

22. Louis Pasteur, Chemist – Overall Rank #146

His overall rank is quite disappointing especially if one takes into account his immense contributions to humankind and how his remarkable discoveries have prevented illness and saved the lives of millions since his day, but in a society that values wealth, political power, entertainment, and technology more than science and its life-altering breakthroughs, the “father of microbiology” is ranked only at number 146, even though he gets the nod as the most influential chemist in history. He’s best remembered for inventing the process of pasteurization that is named after him and has helped billions of babies around the world to grow up healthy by drinking fresh milk without bacteria.

21. Marilyn Monroe, Actress – Overall Rank #141

Marilyn Monroe is widely considered to be the most famous sex symbol in the world and one of the very first globally known female celebrities in history. Her legacy and incomparable influence on the entertainment world can be traced to the simple fact that a long list of female celebrities have tried to imitate or impersonate her look and sex appeal. Whether in photos, TV shows, or music videos these women, including Madonna, Britney Spears, Beyonce, Christina Aguilera, Lindsay Lohan, Scarlett Johansson, Paris Hilton, and Jennifer Lopez, to name just a few, cannot hold a candle to the charm and personality of the original. In 2009, TV Guide Network named her Film’s Sexiest Woman of All Time, while People magazine classified her as the most powerful female pop cultural icon of the twentieth century. Even more surprising, according to MIT’s study she’s the most popular and influential actor of all time, beating even the male giants of the big screen Humphrey Bogart, Marlon Brando, James Dean, Robert De Niro, and Al Pacino, among many others.

20. Elvis Presley, Singer – Overall Rank #117

Elvis, the “King of Rock ‘n’ Roll,” is, according to the MIT study (and numerous others), the most famous and influential singer of all time. We might add that he’s also the biggest-selling solo artist in history with estimated sales of over a billion records according to his record company. A recent poll by a Japanese magazine showed that Elvis is the most popular American personality of all time in Japan, ahead of presidents, generals, businessmen, social activists, and other entertainers, representative of his immense popularity and influence around the globe.

19. Imhotep, Architect – Overall Rank #116

Imhotep was an Egyptian polymath who excelled in various fields of human activity, particularly architecture and engineering. He was the designer and architect of the astonishing Pyramid of Djoser, which was built in the 27th century BCE for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser. According to the available archaeological findings, this is the very first Egyptian pyramid and stood 62 meters (203 ft) tall when first built, an incredibly high architectural creation for its time and after. During his lifetime, Imhotep earned many honors and titles of a social and religious character which no other commoner had attained before including Chancellor of the King of Egypt, First in Line after the King of Upper Egypt, High Priest of Heliopolis, and Administrator of the Great Palace. He was one of very few people in Egyptian history who achieved a divine status after his death though he was born a commoner.

18. Che Guevara, Social Activist – Overall Rank #72

The handsome Argentine doctor with an aristocratic heritage who ended up a revolutionary, a guerrilla leader, a diplomat, Fidel Castro’s right-hand man, and a dominant figure in the United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution, ranks ahead of other towering activists such as Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr., due to his immense popularity among teenagers and students around the world. His incredibly famous photo, Guerrillero Heroico, which appears on this list, has been cited by the Maryland Institute College of Art and Time magazine as the most famous photograph in the world and has simultaneously made Che Guevara a global symbol of rebellion and popular culture. A strange combination, indeed.

17. Charles Darwin, Biologist – Overall Rank #71

Charles Darwin was an English polymath who studied several sciences during his lifetime but it was his theory of evolution by natural selection, the foundation of modern evolutionary studies, which gave him the legacy of being one of history’s most famous scientists ever. Darwin was an agnostic, a fact that had a pivotal influence on his thinking, and he shocked the strict, religious Victorian society of his day by suggesting a completely different theory from that of the Bible (Creationism in Genesis), noting that animals and humans share a common ancestry. His secular, even anti-Christian, beliefs in the biological roots of humankind and its evolution frustrated and appalled the masses, who were easily manipulated by Church authority and dogma, but his ideas surprisingly appealed to the upper classes and other professional scientists, who saw Darwin as a rebel and a new icon of free thinking. Whether you agree or disagree with his theories, Darwin is considered one of the most influential figures in human history, according to MIT’s research.

16. Nefertiti, Companion – Overall Rank #51

Way before Eleanor Roosevelt, Jacqueline Kennedy-Onassis, Rosalynn Carter, Hillary Clinton, and Michelle Obama, there was Nefertiti. Make no mistake, Nefertiti was a queen consort, which meant that she was the wife of a reigning king, and so she can’t be compared with the likes of Cleopatra, Elizabeth I of England, and the Byzantine empress Irene of Athens. She was what we would define today as a first lady. However, Nefertiti’s power and influence on her husband Akhenaten, the Egyptian pharaoh, was immense and many historians believe that she was the one who commanded the ancient Kingdom of Egypt and made every major decision behind the scenes. Her historical influence was highly appreciated by MIT’s study, which named her the most famous companion of all time and the second-most-famous female of all time behind that other great woman of Egypt, Cleopatra.

15. Sigmund Freud, Psychologist – Overall Rank #49

Sigmund Freud was a famous Austrian neurologist, the founding father of psychoanalysis, and without question the most famous figure of the academic and applied discipline of psychology. Despite the fact that some of his theories were really controversial, especially his obsession with the Oedipus complex, which many historians speculate derived from his own feelings of desire for his mother and jealousy and anger toward his father, many of his psychological and psychotherapeutic views and associated techniques remain popular within psychotherapy and general psychiatry to this day.

14. Hippocrates, Physician – Overall Rank #48

Hippocrates of Kos, as he is better known in medical circles, was an ancient Greek physician who’s widely considered to be the father of Western medicine and the one who established medicine as a profession. He was the founder of the famous Hippocratic School of Medicine that helped to revolutionize medicine in the ancient world. Hippocrates laid the foundation for modern medicine with his methods and teachings (ground-breaking and radical for his time), while his immense influence can be traced to the oath that every doctor, nurse, and physician’s assistant has been taking for many years all over the Western World, the Hippocratic Oath. Some historians believe that the oath was written by Hippocrates himself or one of his students.

13. Herodotus, Historian – Overall Rank #32

The ancient Greek historian from Halicarnassus was the first historian to gather together his materials consistently and methodically, and then to organize and report them into a historiographical narrative. For this reason he is regarded as the “Father of History” and the one who elevated history as a subject to a social science. Even if you’re not a fan of history, you should still be thankful to Herodotus for being the man who investigated and recorded the Greco-Persian Wars in his masterpiece The Histories, which heavily inspired Frank Miller and Zack Snyder to produce one of the best graphic novels and war films, respectively, in contemporary history: 300.

12. Galileo Galilei, Astronomer – Overall Rank #31

They called him the “Father of Modern Science,” the “Father of Modern Physics,” and ultimately the “Father of Modern Observational Astronomy,” but Galileo Galilei was more than just a great scientist and astronomer; he was a rebel. He was the one who popularized the theory of many ancient Greek thinkers and scientists such as Philolaus, Aristarchus of Samos, and Hypatia, that the Earth revolves around a relatively stationary sun at the center of the solar system, which put him in serious trouble because the irrational authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church persecuted him and tried him for his “radical” and “satanic” ideas and teachings. He is best remembered for saying one of the most iconic quotes in history during his trial: “And yet it moves,” referring to the Earth.

11. Christopher Columbus, Explorer – Overall Rank #24

To some people Christopher Columbus is a hero, the greatest explorer who ever lived, and the major figure who started the European colonization of the New World, while other people consider him nothing but an invader who spread the Christian religion to the indigenous tribes of America at any cost. One way or another, Columbus is widely regarded as the founder of what we know and define today as the United States of America and his influence on history, good or bad, is unquestionable since he had the most significant role in the European exploration, conquest, and colonization of America.

10. Isaac Newton, Physicist – Overall Rank #22

Sir Isaac Newton has surpassed Albert Einstein as the most influential physicist of all time outranking him by one place. The great English scientist is globally considered the key figure in the Scientific Revolution and his revolutionary scientific discoveries influenced many other great scientists including Einstein. Most experts and historians agree that his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy laid the foundation for classical mechanics and he also shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for inventing calculus.

9. Michelangelo, Painter – Overall Rank #19

Even though most people consider Michelangelo just a painter, the truth is that the second-most-influential artist of the Renaissance behind Leonardo da Vinci was also an excellent sculptor and architect with the ultimate masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture, David, to his name. However, most of us know him as one of the greatest painters who ever lived, if not the greatest, and rightfully when one considers that the Sistine Chapel ceiling, The Crucifixion of St. Peter, and The Conversion of Saul among other masterpieces are his creations.

8. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Composer – Overall Rank #16

The most famous child prodigy in history is also, according to MIT research, the most influential and popular composer in history. He started making music and composing at the age of five and by the time of his death, only thirty years later, he had already composed over 600 works. His compositions continue to influence Western music even today and another great composer of the classical period, Joseph Haydn, wrote that posterity will not see such a talent again for 100 years, a false statement after all, since posterity hasn’t seen such a talent for over 220 years since the death of the great Amadeus Mozart.

7. Archimedes, Mathematician – Overall Rank #11

Archimedes was a Greek mathematician and inventor among other things, who is rightfully considered one of the most brilliant minds of all time and the “godfather of invention.” His contributions to geometry revolutionized the subject and his methods influenced every mathematician and inventor who followed including Leonardo da Vinci, Newton, and Leibniz. He combined a genius for mathematics with insights into the nature of the physical universe, a mix that produced the foundations of hydrostatics, statics, and the explanation of the principle of the lever as well as many innovative machines, including siege engines and the screw pump that is named after him.

6. Homer, Writer – Overall Rank #9

The immense influence and impact of Homer on the world can be traced to the simple fact that his two masterpieces, The Iliad and The Odyssey, have been read, studied, and spread by countless millions of people throughout the centuries in schools, universities, and Hollywood films and TV shows. The ancient Greek poetic giant, who made the “immortal” figures Achilles, Paris, and Odysseus famous through his epics, ranks ahead of William Shakespeare and Dante Alighieri as the greatest writerwho ever lived according to MIT.

5. Julius Caesar, Politician – Overall Rank #8

Julius Caesar was, according to most historians and political analysts, the most important figure in Roman history. He was a great strategist and general but also a charismatic politician who changed the form of government in Rome while his conquests laid the foundation for the development of European and Western culture. Although he was of aristocratic origin, he fought for the lowest social classes and the poor of Rome, which was the main reason behind his assassination.

4. Leonardo da Vinci, Inventor – Overall Rank #6

Leonardo da Vinci’s name is equated with genius and the cultural movement of the Renaissance, from where he got the nickname “Renaissance Man.” However, it’s really hard to define da Vinci’s actual profession since he mastered way too many things during his lifetime from sculpture to painting, architecture to music, mathematics to anatomy, and engineering among others. He was without a doubt the most diversely talented man of his time and many historians believe that a mind and personality like his comes only once every thousand years. Because of the multiple interests that spurred him to pursue various fields of knowledge, da Vinci is widely considered the archetype of the term genius and the greatest inventor who ever lived.

3. Alexander the Great, Military Personnel – Overall Rank #5

Alexander the Great is without a doubt one of the greatest military generals who ever lived and his empire was one of the biggest the ancient world ever knew. He remained undefeated on the battlefield until his death and he was the man who spread Greek culture and civilization to the biggest part of the then-known world. He founded over twenty cities which were named after him, most notably Alexandria in Egypt, and he is one of the very few human beings who managed to start and mark a whole era of human history: the Hellenistic period. He became the absolute standard and measure of greatness for many military leaders who followed and his name remains synonymous with dominance.

2. Jesus Christ, Religious Figure – Overall Rank #3

Jesus Christ is not the most influential or popular figure in history according to MIT but, with a global population of over 7 billion, only 2 billion of which are Christian, this shouldn’t surprise us. Still Jesus is the most famous religious figure in history ahead of Moses and Muhammad but third overall behind Aristotle and Plato, who seem to have influenced more people throughout the centuries mainly because their ideas and lessons were not restricted by religious faith.

1. Aristotle, Philosopher – Overall Rank #1

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher from Stagirus, northern Greece, who was born in 384 BCE. He’s widely considered one of the three greatest philosophers of all time, along with Socrates and Plato, while his teachings and theories migrated across Africa, Asia, and the Middle East through the conquests of his most famous student, Alexander the Great. He’s one of the very few historical figures who enjoys great respect and immense popularity on every continent and has been revered in Judaism, Christian theology, and Islam, where most Muslim intellectuals refer to him as “The First Teacher.” According to MIT’s research, he is the most influential human being who ever lived, while his teachings and theories are considered the most effective on a global scale regardless of religion, location, sex, class, or race. Did you learn something new from our “25 most influential people” list? If so, you may also like these 25 Strange Facts From History You Probably Didn’t Learn In School


Read more: http://list25.com/25-most-influential-people-in-history-by-attribute/

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What Your Go-To Workout In The Gym Says About Your Personality

Have you ever gone to the gym, looked at the machines and thought to yourself, How do I use these? And which ones are right for me personally?

I know I have. Ive been an avid gym-goer since my early 20s, and years later, I still have questions as to whether I’m working out in a way that reflects my goals, who I am and what I like.

The Internet floods us with conflicting information when it tells us how to optimize our workouts; are we supposed to do cardio first, followed by strength training? Or is it the other way around?

Most importantly, to keep working out as something I love versus something I dread, how can I work out in a way that wont bore me to death? Is the workout Im doing now one thats perfect for my body, my fitness goals and who I am as a person?

Fortunately, I had the pleasure of speaking with John Rowley, a best-selling author, certified personal trainer and ISSA director of wellness. He told me there are three different kinds of people in this world: the quitters, who go to the gym once or twice and then give up forever;the one-timers, who go in with one specific goal, such as losing 20 pounds or toning up; and the hobby-cultivators, who start going to the gym with one intention in mind, but then end up loving it and making it a part of their habitual routine.

Of those three types of people, there are certain kinds of people who work out in particular ways unique to their personalities – and not just their gym personalities, but their personalities IRL.

Heres what Johnsaysyour go-to workout says about your personality.

If you stick just to the treadmill, youre noncommittal.

To all of the cardio bunnies: If youre merely spending your gym time on the treadmill, you should consider trying other equipment. You might be sticking to this machine because it gives you that great “runner’s high,” but long periods of cardio don’t do much besides burn calories.

It’sfine if you’re looking to lose weight, but to give your metabolism a boost and see muscle definition, hop off the treadmill and onto the weight machines.

If you stick to weight machines, you enjoy your comfort zone.

Because machines tell us what to do and how to do it, many of us develop a sort of comfort from using strictly them. When we use free weights, we’re more vulnerable andprone to looking foolish by practicing bad form in front of the rest of the gym-goers – which is enough to scare off the people who like to stick to what they know.

You are the kind of person who might just be afraid to branch out and try new routines on the mats, for example.

If you stick to free weights, youre more serious about getting results.

Free weights users, you are the seasoned pack of the bunch. You also go to the gym with the intention of getting stronger and progressing the more you exercise.

There is a psychology to wanting to grow in the gym with using free weights; after we use them, we can physically feel and track our progress because we are more likely to stand in front of a mirror and watch our form.

In life, you are probably incredibly goal-oriented and will do whatever it takes as a means to an end.

If you stick to group workouts, youre focused on having a memorable gym experience.

Theres actually something to that whole SoulCycle trend…

Women arent just concerned with getting in shape; theyre keen on viewing their cardio craze as an experience they plan on taking with them outside the gym.

They want to kick butt, but also deem their group workout worthy enough to be a topic of conversation at their next girls night out.

You’re the type of person to use your friends as motivation to hit the gym, and you might have a hard time creating incentive for solo workouts.

If you stick to solo workouts, you use the gym as an escape.

If youre not into sharing your exercise experience with someone else, youre most likely a lone wolf.

For you, the gym is like therapy: it’s a place for you to be yourself, without judgment and without having to compromise. Your priority is to get the best possible results, not gab with your girlfriend on the elliptical next to you.

I personally look at the gym as my me time: time I take out of my day whenIm not expected to talk to anyone or do anything for anyone. And theres nothing wrong with being a little selfish at the gym because it’s one of the few places where wecan do things at our own pace.

Regardless of your individual personality, John encourages everyone to make time for one thing.

That one thing is resistance training. He pointed out that people who are embarrassed to do it gravitate toward the “easier” machines, like the elliptical and stairclimber, and make a home out of them.

He is also an avid proponent of what he calls the “King TUT Method,” which stands for Time Under Tension.

What he means by this iswe should take 20 to 30 second rest periods between sets of lifting because having that rest time is crucial to getting the most out of your workout and keeping your muscles from getting too tired before working them again. This way, you are stimulating metabolism while also pushing the muscles.

In the end, its always better to do something over nothing – so if you can squeeze in 30 minutes a day, three days a week doing strength training, you’ll still be able to see results.

An added bonus is staggering the other days doing aerobic exercise and eating right, because abs are made in the kitchen, not the gym.

Also, if you’re interested in more of what John has to say, you can order his books, “The Power Of Positive Fitness” and “Climb Your Ladder Of Success Without Running Out of Gas,” here.

Read more: http://elitedaily.com/wellness/workout-says-about-personality/1316700/

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Community Post: One Fitness Book Every Human Should Read

This book review will be published in the forthcoming July/August issue of WOD Talk Magazine.

Mobility Man

By Hamza Shaban

Kelly Starrett is the Deepak Chopra of sports medicine. Classically trained but reformist of mind, the good doctor hopes to reshape the tradition of physiotherapy from which he sprang. But it’s not divine transcendence Starrett supplies. Instead, he offers something quietly profound and entirely more useful, a way for us humans to perform basic maintenance on our bodies.

In his colossus of corporal knowledge, Becoming A Supple Leopard: The Ultimate Guide to Resolving Pain, Preventing Injury, and Optimizing Athletic Performance (Victory Belt Publishing), Starrett bares his offering to the gods of sport: the Movement and Mobility System.

With the foundation of a traditional strength and conditioning program-arduous lifts and ferocious sprints-coupled with a training philosophy that views correct movement as the ultimate skill, Starrett wishes to steer sports medicine away from coping with injury and toward performance longevity. He does this by testing and refining our most primal movements. These fundamental iterations of push, pull, and drive like the squat, deadlift, and press serve dual functions. They are furnaces forging iron-like flesh and diagnostic instruments. By revealing faulty biomechanics and stalled motor control, Starrett’s emphasis on mobility makes the invisible visible.

In the author’s paradigm, performing a push press not only fortifies the muscle fibers in the legs and shoulders, it also exposes how a person might reflexively push or jump. During the dip before the drive, does the athlete allow her knees to lurch forward, putting undue stress on the hinge joint and forcing the lower spine to overextend? As the bar travels upward, do her elbows flare outward, coercing her shoulders into a compromised, internally rotated position? For Starrett, the drills adopted by strength and conditioning coaches pinpoint our mechanical limitations and confess our anatomical pathologies. As Starrett writes, “By consistently and systematically exposing athletes to the rigors and full-range movements and optimal human motor-control, we’re able to quickly identify force leaks, torque dumps, bad technique, motor inefficiency, poorly integrated movement patterns, holes in strength, speed, and metabolic conditioning; and restrictions in mobility.”

While Starrett’s doctrine of “gym as laboratory” is hardly groundbreaking, his articulation of three movement principles-spine stabilization, one-joint rule, and maximizing torque-is a significant and lasting contribution to sports science.

Supple Leopard builds on the long-standing idea that the stabilization of the spine is of utmost importance. This axiom holds true for yielding peak athletic achievement (Usain Bolt, SEAL Team 6) and maintaining a healthy skeleton (everyone else). Because the human body radiates power outward-from core to extremity, from torso to limb-setting and bracing the trunk should be the first step in any physical endeavor. With a fixed, tight center, the ribcage is stacked directly atop the pelvis, an ideal carriage to whip horsepower from the hips and shoulders. And the back is flat-it’s optimal shape for transmitting tenacity. To organize the spine, Starrett uses a simple 4-step approach. Stand tall and squeeze the glutes; tuck in the ribcage; exhale and stiffen the abs; gaze forward with shoulders broad and down.

From this organized and sturdy bearing, we construct the best pose for any feat of strength. Absent this transferable, repeatable routine, Starrett argues that athletes compromise the structures of their central nervous system, and wreak carnal havoc on the joints north and south of the trunk. (This serves as a habit-making paradigm. In frenzied combat and furious sport the idealized stance will always be challenged, negotiated, or surrendered.)

Without first bracing the core for a deadlift, the backbone will prove its flexibility and round-in order to accommodate the load. Where a proper pull from the ground features a back as straight and rigid as a wrench handle, a relaxed midsection invites dangerous sheer forces on the lumbar vertebrae, begging for disc slippage. Without an engaged butt to initiate a back squat, the spine defaults into hyperextension, a gnarly bone-on-bone clash also known as “stripper’s arch.”

As Starrett demonstrates, the spry spectrum of flexion and extension should be expressed in the arms and legs, not by the spinal cord. This is what he means by the “one joint rule.” Otherwise, in a desperate effort to provide some form of stability, the body will naturally fall back on secondary arrangements, like hunched shoulders or a rounded back. Allow these second order postures to become habit, and faulty motor patterns become reflexes, normal joint function disintegrates into disability. On ugly form, the shrewd instructor remarks, “It’s not a problem until it becomes a problem.”

This is where Starrett’s favorite concept arrives: torque. While the human animal appears in many sizes and proportional arrangements, the mechanics of the hips and shoulders are the same for everyone. Both types of joints are ball-in-socket. A sac of ligaments and fibrous tissue surround the joint and connect bone and cartilage. These leathery bags provide freedom to move and create stability through rotation. At the top of a pushup, to actively point your elbows-pits forward is to harness rotational force, or torsion. This action screws the shoulder joint tightly in place, like wringing a towel around a tennis ball. When trainers tell their students to “snap the barbell” during the bench press, they are cueing a twisting, squeezing motion to externally rotate the shoulder and create torque. From a joint that is wound-up and stable, muscles can safely and efficiently move bone, which produces enormous amounts of power.

Throughout the book, Starrett utilizes the laws of torque and the primacy of spine stabilization to guide us through dozens of beastly engagements. Minus a braced midline and torqued-up joints, we learn that exertion is wasted. The body, in a drastic triage, will hunt for tension any way it can. “If you don’t or can’t create a stable position from which to generate force, our body will provide one for you,” Starrett explains. In the squat, this manifests itself in knees and ankles that collapse inward. In the press, it looks like an arched lower back and rounded shoulders. In the deadlift it’s the donkey-butt hips that shoot up, or the collapsed thorax that caves in.

The reader begins to see the teacher’s lessons everywhere: offices filled with hunched over desk workers; walkers and runners with feet turned out, like a duck’s; and worst of all, gym-goers showing all the wrong signs-a soft middle and a reckless, baffling inattention to good form.

With simplicity and precision, Starrett illuminates the body’s crude elegance. His chapter “The Systems” replaces the narrow concept of stretching, and in its place, advances a more holistic method that goes beyond “end range static stretching.” It includes motor control, range of motion dysfunction, joint capsule issues, and short, tense muscles. Armed with a dungeon master’s medieval arsenal-stretch bands, foam rollers, lacrosse balls, Voodoo floss, and the sadistic, gracious hands of a super-friend, Starrett teaches us how to self-massage, dispatch nagging pain and heal tweaked tissues.

Many readers will recognize Kelly Starrett from his popular blog, MobilityWod. Supple Leopard is a logical extension of this undertaking. The website presents daily mobility routines and addresses recurring themes in athletic life (of the field and cubicle variety). Starrett on the page is much like “K-Star” from the videos, playfully illuminating and methodically convincing. His vision of human mobility has an intellectual coherence rare in the fitness world.

As a writer, blogger, and touring seminar coach, Starrett is CrossFit’s ombudsmen. Along with exemplars of gymnastics and Olympic lifting Carl Paoli and Diane Fu, both prominent co-stars in Supple Leopard, Starrett is CrossFit’s most dedicated and constructive critic. This is just one more reason why the book is a crucial work. It is a worthy attempt to shift our fitness culture away from “How much do you bench?” and closer to “How good is your bench press form?”

Against the miasma of meat-head gym-wisdom and the circus of poor technique, Starrett’s project is a much needed corrective. “Remember,” K-Star urges, “your tissues were designed to be 110 years old. You just have to know what the stable, tissue-saving, catastrophe-avoiding positions are. And, you have to practice them. A lot.”

Read more: http://buzzfeed.com/planethozz/the-one-fitness-book-every-human-should-read-7gt3

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